In the Rhodope Mountains – Located in South Bulgaria, the Rhodopes take up nearly one-eight part of the territory of the country. The landscapes here are quite different than in those of Rila and Pirin – there is no such a jagged peaks, but endless “”sea”” of green hills and a number of small villages between them. The Rhodopes offer a lot of opportunities for easy hiking in combination with getting to know the local culture and traditions. The area is inhabited from an old time and nowadays both Christians and Muslims live here and contribute to the unique local culture.
In 2018, the average total fertility rate in Bulgaria was 1.56 children per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1 and considerably below the historical high of 5.83 children per woman in 1905. Bulgaria thus has one of the oldest populations in the world, with an average age of 43 years. These include two scientific satellites, more than 200 payloads and 300 experiments in Earth orbit, as well as two cosmonauts since 1971. CestovatelskeNovinky Bulgaria was the first country to grow wheat and vegetables in space with its Svet greenhouses on the Mir space station.
The Romans built cities of breathtaking scale, the bathhouses, walls and amphitheatres of which sit nonchalantly in the midst of modern cities such as Varna and Plovdiv. Successions of tsars strutted along the ramparts of Tsarevets Fortress at former capital Veliko Târnovo. And these histories are no less relevant today, with Thracian art and Bulgaria’s victory over the Ottomans continuing to inspire. Bulgaria’s untamed landscapes quicken the pulse of hikers, mountain bikers and skiers. Seven mountain ranges ripple across the country; glacial lakes sparkle between these snow-dusted peaks, and tangles of forest conceal wolves, bears and lynx, a glimpse of Europe’s primeval past. Networks of trails and hizhas allow access to such raw beauty as mist-cloaked panoramas in the Stara Planina range and sunrise from Bulgaria’s second-highest peak, Mt Vihren .
There is also a wide variety of conventional pastramis (air-dried and then smoked and steamed) made from pork, veal, mutton, lamb and turkey. Another popular fillet appetizer is air-dried mackerel (in Bulgarian veyana skumriya (веяна скумрия) and it can be found in restaurants all around the seaside. Bulgarian meat productsThere is a large number of traditional meat appetizers from all kinds of meat in Bulgarian cuisine. Traditional meat appetizers are made from either the meat of the animal or from its intestines, but some of the delicacies include both.
Even the coast’s two big cities, Varna and Burgas, have attractive beaches within minutes of their urban hearts. And while Sunny Beach, Sozopol and other favourites are thoroughly developed, there are still plenty of undiscovered coves north and south of the major hubs. There are three networks , all using the GSM/4G/3G/HDSPA standards.
International military relations were further expanded with accession to NATO in March 2004 and the US-Bulgarian Defence Cooperation Agreement signed in April 2006. Bezmer and Graf Ignatievo air bases, the Novo Selo training range, and a logistics centre in Aytos subsequently became joint military training facilities cooperatively used by the United States and Bulgarian militaries. The Treaty of San Stefano was signed on 3 March 1878 by Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It was to set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality spanning Moesia, Macedonia and Thrace, roughly on the territories of the Second Bulgarian Empire, and this day is now a public holiday called National Liberation Day.
The only passenger service provider are the Bulgarian State Railways (BDZh or BDZ, БДЖ in Bulgarian). During the Communist period, the railways were prioritized as the main mode of mass passenger transport, but in the 1990s the advent of personal automobiles and private bus companies caused a large decline in ridership. As a result, due to corruption, mismanagement and the general economic woes of the country, BDZ has struggled to modernize or even maintain its services, though there has been improvement in the last decade. Nonetheless, most of the plant and animal life is central European, mixed with a type that blends Arctic and alpine characteristics in the high mountains. Steppe species are most characteristic in the northeast and southeast, while the south is rich in sub-Mediterranean and Mediterranean species.
Most of the exports are manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel products and food. Bulgaria has an open, upper middle income range market economy where the private sector accounts for more than 70% of GDP. The loss of COMECON markets in 1990 and the subsequent “”shock therapy”” of the planned system caused a steep decline in industrial and agricultural production, ultimately followed by an economic collapse in 1997.